The picture above seems to be an actual picture of an electrical spark with a huge potential, is it though? A question like which came first, the chicken or the egg? Was it the electrical field or the magnetic field? Since both fields are directly and proportionally related one has to question which is nature and which is created, and why, for what purpose?
First of all it takes a strong magnetic field to magnetize anything else or effect it in a magnetic way. Gauss is to magnetism as pressure is to fluid and referred to electromotive force (EMF) in the electron flow field (electronics) of electrical current. A question to think about ; is there actually two elements current and voltage? The answer is no, think of it like gallons of gas in your car gas tank. I takes fuel pressure and volume to make the engine run but it's still gas, one compound. So the electronics field is the same way, it takes pressure and volume to make an electrical system function correctly.
So in reality we have the accumulation of electrons which are negatively charged (eV) electron volts. Now another question is are they magnetically polarized as well?
A good way to think about EMF (volts electrical), psi (fluid/air pressure), and gauss (magnetic potential force) is to compare them to a persons ability to push a specific weight against them. If a person weighs 200lbs. and has a footprint area of 20 square inches then the exerted force could be assumed displaced in an uneven type of area and not as a stationary object would displace. However for example 20 square inches would displace 200 lbs. equally onto an equal surface so 10lbs. per square inch displaced weight could not feasably push more resistance than 10lbs. per sqare inch of resistance. So these force potentials rated in other terms in different physical elements are simply the same as the potential force of a human. So a persons maximum potential may be 200 ft. pounds of force and no matter how long that person exerts the energy of a 200 ft. lb. force on an object that weighs 500 lbs per square foot they are not going to move the object, simply they will wear out and quit pushing force onto the heavy object.
So this important concept is needed to understand LENR fuel better. From a mechanic inventor point of view I believe the scientists, I am not into the way deep reaction formulas but I am really experienced at mechanical design so the following text is written from the aspect that what the scientists are contending with in the LENR experiments is fact and without doubt.
Asymmetry, Biasing, Mechanically Symmetric.
Asymmetry is the unbalancing from the center of gravity of an object, things with asymmetry have potential through a delta (Δ) effect. Any differential of potential in a system provides means for energy liberation. Biasing becomes a critical factor in all physics, and for example the human potential again, whereas an equal amount of force potential is applied, as to oppose the other potential netting zero movement, but a stabilized element held against pressure or potential then exists. Devices can be Mechnaically Symmetric and be made functionally asymmetric through a manipulation of electrical and magnetic fields.
In the picture above it could be conjectured that there are at least two fields present, an electrical field and a magnetic field. Also one could assume there would be some type of attraction or repulsion from certain other objects getting near this event. We could call it gravity for lack of a better technically explained phenomena.
This becomes very interesting for someone contemplating the mechanical dynamics of the observable physical elements in our world. Fist off the chicken and the egg thing could be answered like this, logically you shouldn't be able to get an egg without a female chicken involved, secondly the egg would not hatch unless it was fertile. One could conclude that there needed to be a male and female bird to produce and egg hatched into a new baby bird. Now unless you feel chickens also came from monkeys walking upright on two legs then one must contemplate what actually this true picture should reveal.
Obvious is the fact we can see that a chicken produces an egg, so logically the chicken mold was created. The first chicken was produced then came the male rooster, then came the baby chicks. That's not very hard to figure out but the catch is who, what, and why? Now let's review all other things in this world, it appears they also have been created in origin. Yes whipped up like a batch of Link in Logs into a log cabin. I have re affirmed this over and over throughout my life and I am 58 firmly accepting creation. The question I am always trying to answer to myself is "why"? Is there anything obvious to this picture besides were in it. It appears that everything we experience in this world is for support of another life form, like a chain from the most smallest to the most biggest. There are some dynamics regarding size however, and inevitably it comes down to the control system of an organism, and the means (extremeties) to manipulate thoughts into reality.
Things in what we call nature are symmetrical as exampled by Leonardo Divinchi in his example of the human body and it's extensions. Like the final design that keeps evolving into a better mutated organism, we see this over and over in nature. We are living in the most advanced state of abilities in real time, with all other organisms in support of the consistantcy of it.
So the first question to answer in the quest for the optimum fuel for LENR engines and I call them engines due to the technicality that they are using the fuel within a sealed chamber which makes it an engine mechanically speaking in technical terms. So, since electrical fields oscillating produce a magnetic field, and oscillating magnetic fields when induced into the same elements produce an electrical field, which one was a created field and which one is the egg so to speak in comparisson? It has been my conclusion based on years of observation that the electrical field was created in origin and therefore all other life exists from the result of it. The magnetic fields seems to have been produced from the observations of electrical fields. The entire system is ungulating at resonance, so we need to now go down the list of elements and figure out which ones actually were created and which ones are natural phenomena as a result of this resonant ungulation. Like a total fluidic universe, and to figure out the optimum fuel for LENR one needs to first make some certain affirmations on the physical lements of life.
A primary first step to understanding LENR, is accepting that the electrical field was created for a reason and that is to produce and sustain all life, the original building block of everything that exists in all time and space. Nothing would exist in creation without the electrical field. It is also capable of ending all life as we know it to be after man steps beyond and experiences hindsight results from the usage of it without proper evolvement of the human mind. I believe it's a technology that will emerge as we develop into a more humble civilization but if it actually develops sooner it may be a catalyst for us to move ahead as a human species into a newly developing cleaner way to use the electrical fields.
Oscillating an electrical field can be reduced to an electrical frequency and at the rate the field is oscillated can be termed hertz (hz) which is the oscillation speed in seconds. Normally accepted is a duality or two options of oscillation, a hi or a low and generically labled as that, due to the position relative to a common oscilliscope. When your hi in oscillation your on the top side of the 0-line cross on the horizontal axis, and when your low your on the bottom side of that 0-line on the horizontal axis. So an oscillating electrical frequency goes from hi to low, if that happens one time per second that's one hertz (hz). Also in simpler terms it is also referred to as a 0=open contact no field present, 1=closed contact electrical field present. However there is a state of charge potential in everything so in technical terms with the new LENR there will have to be a rotational angle associated with the oscillation events and not simply a 1 or 0.
The fields necessary to optimize a LENR fuel reaction can all be produced from oscillating an electrical field. This includes an acoustical field which will need to resonate in conjunction with magnetic fields, heat band gradients and the radial transfer of heat waves. Broken down simply is that all the reactions will rely on oscillating electrical fields reverberating in resonance.
Claimed LENR fuel, elements.
One element everyone has agreed on is nickel, nickel nano powder, nickel wire, or the nickel tubes as mentioned in the new report from Storms and some constants he has found to be true with the LENR process. Aslo referring to the Celani reports from Italy and that pdf is on the Dolphin-5 page of this site for your review. The claims made by Rossi early on in 2011 also recited nano nickel as a primary element to start with for a reaction within a pressurized environment of hydrogen gas.
When designing any equipment to perform it is vitally important for the success of the product to make sure anything that can be modified or changed that affects the overall perfomance of the product be made as to not allow an end user to "make a mistake" and change the operation or performance of the product by that small mistake, and practicality needs to also be dealt with.
In the LENR experiments documented it is found that multiple different types of fuel nickel can be used. First off are the original claims of Rossi since he broke the ice so to speak with the LENR claims in early 2011. When you educate yourself on the nano powders you soon find they need to be carefully handled, they can be dangerous if not handled carefully.
At minimum one needs a glove box to start, next is to order the powder and name a size. One of the sure things that cause this LENR reaction has been stated by all of the claimants observing anomolous thermal heat as a product resulting from the LENR experiments. This one thing is termed NAE by Storms (Nuclear Active Environment) and "all" claimants have supplied pictures of the nano structures formed on either the nano nickel powder or on the outer circumferal surface of the solid wire "ISOTAN 44" which is a mix of Nickel, Copper, Manganese (Ni + Cu + Mn). In the last report of Storms of which I hold in high regard he clearly tells a certainty of this environment and that is it has to be present for these reactions to have the potential of being observed.In fact he states that "if" this NAE is not present for sure no LENR reactions will take place. The big question at this point is exactly how someone can get a cosistent NAE by any one process. I am sure that is developing but there will be multiple fuel configurations when the process is refined, and there will be variables involved all depending on the types of material used as the fuel. I see an important standard that needs to be observed and documented by very expensive equipment, an electron photo method and machine. Nano scale is way small and there needs to be precise evaluation processes implied to get the correct matrix grown on the outer surfaces of either the nano nickel powder or the solid ISOTAN 44 of which is already standardized by a deep roots company. ISOTAN 44 is comercially available with a specific percentage of all metals mixed together, inasmuch I don't see the method being standard. It appears there will be a company making the product when the matrix is concluded as to what works best for a LENR reaction.
If you are a scientist or physicist you could logically deduce that there is way more surface possibility with nano nickel powder than with the solid ISOTAN 44 solid wire. The reports state that reactions take place within the NAE and the more surface the more reactions which makes it logical from a mathematical standpoint. From a logical product viewpoint, a mechanics view, solid wire is a dream come true for several reasons. The first being I don't need a glove box, I don't need precise scales to weigh out nickel powder, I don't need to guess what I need for other elements that are also nano powders. We are just getting started on all the advantages of wire as I see it.
Wire is conductive so I have no need to apply large quantities of heat to sustain a LENR reaction, a block of metal can be used to regulate the heat transfer from the fuel reaction and the IR outer heaters only regulate the transfer rate of the thermal heat bands. The ISOTAN 44 (solid wire) can be used as a conductor therefore heat can be generated quickly on the outer surface by oscillating current through the wire. The wire can be stretched taut to a specific preload and allowed to oscillate in a compressed and heated environment (reactor chamber cylinder) creating an acoustical sound in the range of human hearing. This is important to a mechanic due to everything that moves anything else makes a noise specific to that device or vehicle engine. You can tell quickly if any specific problem begins when you hear a new noise or, you can tell when something is running smoothly and remembering the saying "purrs like a kitten" in the auto industry.
It is also possible that by oscillating a wire alot like a Dulsmore could be the same as trying to heat fluid quickly, the faster you stir it the faster it heats up with the same amount of heat applied thusly making the event more efficient. The same with cooling a can of soda or beer, lay it on the cool surface and rotate it around, it get's cool quicker by increasing the surface speed of the can contacting the cooler surface. So possibly the optimum performance of a LENR reaction could be finely tuned in with the ability to change and or sustain a vibration ratio to the fuel wires (rods) and simply called stimulated LENR.
The resistance is constant on the ISOTAN 44 wire so I can precisely calculate a resistance per length segment, and this becomes mechanically important but difficult with a powder. The nano powder requires thermal heat transfer from an external heater making it less efficient when calculating net gain and in comparison to the direct conduction of the solid wire.
Now speaking about the pictures above, they are only two dimensional, but in the real frame of things in view those pictures are lacking depth and scope which is the third dimension. Those pictures cover x-axis and y-axis only they do not give z+ or z- which is the depth and scope of the events pictured. So what is not viewed are the fields produced and affects on the surrounding bodies.
The point being that advancements cannot be made due to the hanging on of old conjectured information on magnetism and the fields composition. After working with magnets exclusively for vector point observation of the fields produced I am certain that there are conduits of infinite pattern that flow the contraversial "monopole". There is a depth and scope to a magnetic domain and on the magnetic object a definitive pattern of infinity is identified in four axis all entangled centrally but not connected. There is an in and an out and every other vector point within the e8 matrix of the magnetic domain encompasing the object has varied mixtures of potential effect on other object metal, and in specific the ISOTAN 44 wire.
The simplicity of wire fuel (LENR)
First of all the commercial availability of ISOTAN 44 is beneficial as well as very interesting as to how the Celani efforts utilized the wire in their reactor running for around 7 months. Nonehteless the wire itself has a specific content of Ni (nickel), Cu (copper), and Mn (manganese). It is standard and available cheaply, it does not have the shipping hazards that the nano nickel powder does and growing the nano sized NAE compartments would be substantially less cost to produce along with a safer process to manufacture.
Second is the compressed hydrogen process and there are several ways to approach this one. Obviously with all the data available it appears that the LENR reactions like gradients or differentials and commonly symboled as Δ or delta. It is a differential within all elements biasable. In other words there is a sliding scale of length and amplitude for differential waves however all net the same in either direction, a noticeable ability to generate heat. Movement occures when differentials apply force onto like elements.
The key simply may add up to a hydrogen accumulator ported into the fuel chamber/ reflector chamber (photon) with a variable sized orriface (electronically controlled) to drive oscillating gas pressures inside the fuel chamber causing heat gradients simutaneously in proportion with internal gas pressure oscillations. It does appear at this time and by observations of available data that the greater the hydrogen gas pressure differentials the higher the efficiency in relation to current in and heat out. Also it appears that the higher pressure of gas inside the fuel/reflector chambers the efficiency goes higher in the same frame perspective as the pressure differentials which are proportionally linear with one another.
There can be many configurations and some suggest putting your LENR reactor "on the pill", there is a pill shaped disk that produces hydrogen and another matrix cage that most likely will go on and produce gas volume differentials in conjunction with the heat applied within the hydrogen chambers. A reactor can be manufactured to handle more pressure than any device will be able to produce it, like for example pressure differentials oscillating between 100,000psi to -100,000 equivalent. The fuel pill will most likely go on at very high pressures also, and that not that difficult to oscillate pressure in a sealed continer the size of the internal volume of the fuel/reflector chamber.
Third is the magnetic domain oscillations in the micro scale. I will include my supportive findings from experiments done by myself regarding magnetism and how it affects into a magnetic domain field later in this text. The point now is to view the magnetic wave the conventional way and then extrapulate in your mind, the view into multiple dimensions of multiple elements. A dimension meaning a commonly referred to "flat plane axis" and centerline of a radial wave in 2d but confirm that by knowing there is a radially displaced wave in spiral motion running parallel with the plane axis of any dimension.
You can look at it simply by picturing a hollow tube of a specific length traveling in parallel to a longitudinal centerline axis (hollow) but having a helix type of spiral as it is rotating.
The Below FIG. 21 is a schematical LENR fuel cell diagram.
There are several elements that make up the proposed LENR fuel cell, and this design of cell is based from a logical evaluation of the elements needed to create the result of a LENR reaction and their application to reproducible mechanisms that are slightly more reduced to practice than the experimenters apparatuses. I am looking at what I feel is scientific progress by the experimenters and claimants of observing LENR, and from the viewpoint of knowing there have been thousands of hours spent on this concept.
Referring now to FIG. 21 the LENR fuel cell, 17.-is the elongated hollow tube that has a finely polished inner bore and a proposed elongated hollow insulator shield shown as crosshatch rendering and in application a resonance isolator. 25.- is the fuel rod assembly called a fuel ring and these rods are simply the ISOTAN 44 wires that are welded to a receiver rod at the end which receives apparatus on each end of the elongated axis, to be disclosed in further text regarding anticipated technical dynamics of it's proposed advantages in this application.
26.-is a grown crystal (2200C growing environment) that has a high temperature capability and is sized and cut as to act as the fuel rod isolator inner. I am anticipating the same material as the outer isolator. The fuel rod cut ends are then open to accept the inner isolator of which the large blunt end is received into one receiver end of the fuel rod holder at the other elongated opposing end of the fuel rods. The cut ends of the fuel rods then innerfit into seperated orifaces cut into an endcap 27.- and are positioned at a specific tension with a specially designed tool that inserts lock ball spacer 30.- as soon as the set tension is achieved on the surface of the ISOTAN 44 fuel rods.
The fuel rod assembly guide cap 24.-has a insulated ceramic lined inner bore as to allow the fuel rod receiver end to slidably innerfit into the ceramic inner bore of 24. In assembly the simplicity of the process of assembly will surely make this configuration desirable to manufacture and simple for a mechanic trained to maintain the reactors.